Heartworm disease in dogs:
As the name shows this illness is produced by a parasite which lives in the heart or major vessels of dogs .A study on “Heartworm in dogs in Canada in 2010” published by the Ontario Veterinary College’s Department of Pathobiology at the University of Guelph has revealed a 60 per cent increase in the number of dogs in Ontario with heartworm since the last study of its kind was conducted in 2002.
Female mosquitoes act as the intermediate host for the stage 1 of the cycle of larvae.Mosquitoes are infected when feed blood from infected dogs.The life cycle of this parasite (Dirofilaria immitis) takes at least six months after infection for the symptoms to become apparent.In this period of time 3 stages of life cycle of larvae are done in the mosquitoes bodies and finally by biting, L3 is transmitted to dogs .After about 100 days L5 enters the pulmonary artery and it releases L1 into the bloodstream.Now the dog has been so infected that can be a source of the L1 and this cycle can be repeated if a mosquito bites that dog. Cats appear to be more resistant to heartworm disease but can be infected.
Heart failure causes clinical signs including: fever,coughing,difficulty in respiration, increased heart rate,bleeding from respiratory system and pale mucous membranes and finally death.
Unfortunately treatment in advanced stage of disease is very difficult and expensive .Any way therapy includes cage rest, corticosteroids, supplemental oxygen,heparin and spacial drugs can kill larvaes and even surgery.
Prevention is based on the heartworm test on the blood.In this lab test Ag or Ab is recognized in the serum.If the test is positive treatment has to be done and if this dog has had annual test,the disease is in the early stage and can be treated easily.If the test is negative prevention can be done by using special medication: tablet or liquid form.
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Cataract in dogs:
The term of cataract comprises a common group of ocular disorders manifested as loss of transparency of the lens or its capsule (Ref: Slatters fundamentals of Veterinary ophthalmology).Cataract can be locally that vision is normal or can be disseminated ( advanced cataract) which in it pets are complete blindness.Cataract is occurred in any stage of life even it can be congenital.
Reason of Cataract
Lens includes capsule, epithelium and fibers. Morphological changes in them lead to lens cataract (opacity).The triggers of these changes are:
1-Genetic factor specially in Toy,Miniature, Terriers, Spaniels, Sheepdogs and Retrievers
2-Ocular diseases,trauma, nutrition,infection and metabolic and endocrine diseases like diabetes.
3-Senile cataract, It is appeared in old dogs.
Partial or complete opacity of lens,impaired vision
Mydriasis in early stage and lens replacement by surgery in advanced cataract.
Cats can suffer from pruritus without their owners being aware from it.Most often itchy cats use their tongue to scratch themselves and this can be misinterpreted by owners as normal grooming.Itchy cats can show lesions as dermatitis , ulcer, alopecia ( symmetrical or non-symmetrical alopecia) and granuloma or a mix of them.Areas of body which are often involved can be : back,abdomen,medial hind limbs, upper lip,neck, facial and ears.
Ectoparasites like flea ,lice Infections such as fungal infection Allergies: food allergy, Atopic dermatitis,
Cytological examination by impression smear Wood’s lamp examination Culture for fungal and bacterial infection Flea comb Strict dietary trial for food allergy
On the basis of diagnosis it is done.
The blocked cat
Urethral obstruction is one of the most common emergency situations in cats.Obstruction is more common in male cats because of anatomical characters of their urinary system.Overweight ,indoor cats and those who use dry food are prone to obstruction.Combination of inflammation and urinary crystals cause block in cats.
Frequent attempts for pee but nothing Showing pain and vocalisation during urination ( pee) Licking genitalia and restlessness After about 48 hours: depression,anorexia,vomiting,collapse, decreasing of body temperature ,rupture of bladder and death
Assessment of cardiovascular and respiratory system Bladder palpation and evaluation Sometimes abdominal ultrasound Blood and urine test Electrocardiogram( ECG)
Intravenous fluid therapy On the basis of ECG :calcium gluconate,Insulin,glucose and sodium bicarbonate Under sedation or anesthesia: urethral obstruction should be opened by placing urethral catheter at least for 24 hours.
Inflammatory mediators cause cutaneous nerve stimulation which leads to pruritus sensation and scratch.Affected areas show erythema or rashes.In chronic patients alopecia and darkness of the skin can be seen.
Most often pruritus in dogs is caused by
1-Ectoparasites: flea, lice,,scabies, insect biting,demodicosis
2- Infection agents: Staphylococcal pyoderma, Malassezia dermatitis
3-Allergies: contact,food and atopic dermatitis
On the basis of examination, distribution of lesions,flea comb,skin scraping or cytology test,therapeutic trial, skin allergy test,rarely skin biopsy
It is done on the basis of diagnosis.
Bladder stone is common in dogs between 1 to 12 year of age.Stones can be made in both sexes but clinically most often it is seen in males because the diameter of the urethra in this sex is smaller than it in female.Also the length of the urethra in males is longer.Therefore pushing out the stones from urinary system in females is more possible.The size and the shape of stones can interfere to ged rid of them by washing out.
Sometimes bladder stones can move to the urethra and they can be trapped in the urethra.Bladder stone can be with urinary infection.
Frequent urination,difficulty in urination,bloody urine,strong- smelling urine,sometimes vomiting, willing to drink so much water and fever.
Diagnosis should be done by physical exam,bladder palpation, blood test, x-ray and sonography.
If a urinary infection is present, treatment with appropriate antibiotics should be instituted.If the urinary obstruction is complete,It should be opened by catheter.On the basis of the size and number of stones treatment can be medical or surgical.In following pictures the stones in the bladder and out side of Shilo’s body ( female dog) are seen.